Subcutaneous patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) are an important tool for childhood cancer research. Here, we describe a resource of 68 early passage PDXs established from 65 pediatric solid tumor patients. Through genomic profiling of paired PDXs and patient tumors (PTs), we observe low mutational similarity in about 30% of the PT/PDX pairs. Clonal analysis in these pairs shows an aggressive PT minor subclone seeds the major clone in the PDX. We show evidence that this subclone is more immunogenic and is likely suppressed by immune responses in the PT. These results suggest that the interplay between intratumoral heterogeneity and antitumor immunity may underlie the genetic disparity between PTs and PDXs. We further show that PDXs generally recapitulate PTs in copy number and transcriptomic profiles. Finally, we report a gene fusion LRPAP1-PDGFRA. In summary, we report a childhood cancer PDX resource, and our study highlights the role of immune constraints on tumor evolution.